Un Agreement On Greenhouse Gases
The countries listed in UnFCCC Schedule II are required to “provide new and additional financial resources to fully cover the agreed costs to contracting parties in developing countries in fulfilling their commitments” in order to provide national lists of their “source and distance emissions of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.” They are also responsible for providing financial assistance to developing countries for other agreed tasks (Article 4, paragraph 3). Appendix II contains Schedule I countries, with the exception of those in transition to democracy and the market economy. Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).  Article 2 of the Convention sets out its ultimate objective of stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere “at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (human) interventions in the climate system.”  38 developed countries have committed to limiting their greenhouse gas emissions. As the United States did not ratify and Canada withdrew, emission limits remained in place for 36 countries. Everyone followed protocol. However, nine countries (Austria, Denmark, Iceland, Japan, Lichtenstein, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain and Switzerland) have had to resort to flexibility mechanisms, with their national emissions slightly above their targets.  The ultimate goal of the UNFCCC is to “stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would stop dangerous anthropogenic disturbances in the climate system.”  Even if the Schedule I contracting parties meet their first-round commitments, much greater emission reductions will be needed in the future to stabilize ThG concentrations in the atmosphere.   Developed countries or Annex I countries are urged to take “immediate measures” to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
Appendix I comprises 38 states, including 13 Eastern European countries in transition to democracy and market economy, and the European Union (legally the European Community). Article 4, paragraph 2, expressly requires Schedule I countries to “adopt national policies and take appropriate measures to mitigate climate change” by limiting their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The article also requires them to report on the steps they are taking to “bring these anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol back to their 1990 levels individually or collectively.” The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change defines climate change as a shift in temperature and/or precipitation observed over comparable periods directly or indirectly attributed to human activity and factors induced by natural climate variability (United Nations, 1992). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) notes with 95% certainty that human activity is the main cause of the observed warming due to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere since the mid-20th century. According to a 2014 publication by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), the main sources of fossil fuel emissions and changes in land use are. The EU originally argued that only three greenhouse gases – CO2, CH4 and N2O – should be included, by regulating other gases such as CFCs separately.  The EU also called for a “bubble” commitment in which it could make a common commitment to allow some EU Member States to increase their emissions, while others reduced their emissions.  For each of the different anthropogenic greenhouse gases, different emission reductions would be needed to achieve the goal of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations (see the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Concentrations).  Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main anthropogenic ThG.  Stabilizing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary